How is a roommate different from a cotenant, a subtenant/subletter, a family member who lives with me, or a guest?
The word roommate is used in everyday language to describe many types of situations where two or more unrelated people share the same apartment. However, there is a legal distinction between the different types of arrangements, and it’s important to know which one applies to you.
Your rights vary depending on the arrangement. What matters in court, if you ever end up there, is what the actual situation is, not what you called it.
Roommate: In this information sheet, a roommate refers only to a person who is not named on the lease of the apartment he/she shares with the prime tenant or leaseholder, and is not to be confused with the following:
A cotenant is named on the same lease as one or more other people who all share the same apartment. Cotenants equally share the full rights and responsibilities of the tenancy.
A subtenant or subletter is someone who rents an apartment from the prime tenant (rather than from the landlord) for a period of time when the prime tenant is temporarily away. If someone lives in your apartment while you live elsewhere most of the time, legally that person is not your roommate; he/she is your subletter (either legally or illegally). Many tenants have the right to sublet by law, but you must follow proper procedures and/or obtain written consent from your landlord. If you don’t, it can lead to eviction. (Read more about subletting your apartment.)
A family member is a member of the primary tenant’s family who lives in the apartment but is not named on the lease. Some family members, in certain situations, have succession rights: They can take over the apartment when the prime tenant moves or dies. (Read more about succession rights in rent stabilized and rent controlled apartments.) Also, when determining the right of tenants to have an additional roommate, certain family members are not counted.
A guest or licensee is a person who has permission from the primary tenant to stay in the apartment temporarily, but who has no written agreement and does not pay rent. For example: Your cousin comes to stay with you and sleeps on your couch for a week.
Immediate family members of the primary tenant who live in the apartment but are not on the lease are not considered roommates. All tenants have a right to live with family members so long as their apartment does not become overcrowded. However, tenants in public housing and subsidized housing must accurately report all household members and their incomes, including when this information changes mid-lease. Failure to do so is grounds for eviction. In some circumstances, criminal convictions can lead individuals to be excluded. Also, exceptions may apply to tenants who receive a rent subsidy or rent exemption (see further in this information sheet for more on this).
If you live in a privately owned building, and
If you are the only person who signed your lease (for rent control: if you are the only tenant of record),
Then you have the right to share your apartment with one other adult not related to you, and that person’s dependent children.
You do not have a right to a roommate if:
- you live in public housing or most subsidized housing, or
- if two or more people have signed the lease, and your lease does not expressly give you permission to live with an additional person.
There are additional considerations if you receive a rent subsidy (such as Section 8 or FEPS) or a rent exemption (such as SCRIE or DRIE), or if your rent is based on your income. Most programs require that you report what the roommate pays in rent as part of your income. Failure to accurately report this income can be a serious violation of the program’s rules and could lead to termination of the program as well as legal actions. Also, bringing in a roommate may make your income too high to remain eligible for the program. Check your program’s guidelines before taking in household members.
More than one person has signed my lease. Do I have the right to take in an additional person as a roommate?
If two or more people signed your lease (for rent control: if there is more than one tenant of record) you are not entitled to have any roommates—even if the cosigner is your spouse or another family member. But if one or more of the tenants named on the lease (or one or more of the rent-controlled tenants of record) moves out, the departing tenant or tenants can be replaced by the same number of roommates. For example, if three people cosigned a lease and two of them move out, the remaining tenant may have two roommates.
The roommate law allows certain tenants to have one roommate (see earlier question “Do I have the right to have a roommate?”). Having a lease is not one of the criteria. However, if you do not have a lease (and are not a rent-controlled tenant), you are a month-to-month tenant, and your landlord can end your tenancy with 30 day’s notice. Therefore, you might want to get your landlord’s permission before bringing in a roommate. (This warning does NOT apply if you are a rent-controlled tenant. While rent-controlled tenants often do not have leases, their landlords cannot evict them without cause—so rent controlled tenants are not at risk by following the roommate law.)
You must inform your landlord of the name of a new roommate within 30 days after the roommate moves in, or within 30 days after your landlord requests that you provide the roommate’s name. Failure to notify your landlord that you have a roommate carries no statutory penalty.
Can I get my roommate’s name added to the lease? Or can I arrange to have my roommate take over the lease for this apartment if I move or die?
If you live in a rent-stabilized apartment, your landlord must add the name of your spouse to a renewal lease when requested. In all other cases, your landlord is not obligated to add anyone’s name to your lease (whether rent-stabilized or not) including when your lease is being renewed.
Some family members (including non-traditional family members) who live in the apartment may be entitled to take over a rent-stabilized, rent-controlled, or Mitchell-Lama apartment and the lease by establishing succession rights when the primary tenant moves or dies. Where there is no family relationship, roommates do not have succession rights. (Read more about succession rights in rent stabilized and rent controlled apartments.)
Roommates do not acquire any right to remain in the apartment if the named tenants move, die, or are evicted. They do not acquire any right to purchase the apartment under a cooperative or condominium conversion plan (unless you and your landlord give specific permission in writing).
If you live in an unregulated (market-rate) apartment, there are no laws governing the maximum amount of money you may charge a roommate. However, if you charge your roommates a disproportionate share of the rent, it often creates bitterness and hostility. Also, there may be restrictions in your lease.
If you are a rent-stabilized tenant, you are prohibited from charging a roommate more than a proportionate share of the rent. This means:
* If you have one roommate, the maximum you can charge that person is one-half of the rent—even if that roommate’s bedroom or living area is larger or more desirable, or if they have access to more of the apartment.
* If you have more than one roommate, you must charge each roommate for his or her proportional share. This share is determined by dividing the legal rent by the number of people on the lease plus the number of roommates. (Example: if three adults share an apartment, each must be charged no more than 1/3 of the rent.) This number does not include the tenants’ spouse or family members, nor the roommates’ dependent children.
A roommate who is not a member of your family and who pays you money to live in your apartment is not treated as part of your household. You do not have to report that roommate’s income on your SCRIE or DRIE application, but you must report as income the amount of rent or other money you received from a roommate. (Read more about SCRIE – Senior Citizen Rent Increase Exemption.)
I live with a roommate, but my landlord is calling that person a “subletter” and is accusing me of illegally subletting the apartment. What can I do?
If your landlord accuses you of illegally subletting, or if your landlord begins legal proceedings against you based on such allegations, you are strongly encouraged to consult an experienced attorney, even if your landlord’s allegations are false. The consequence of losing such a case can be eviction from your apartment.
The information contained on this web page does not constitute legal advice and must not be used as a substitute for the advice of a lawyer qualified to give advice on legal issues pertaining to housing. For more, visit our page on Finding a lawyer.
This information pertains only to tenants living in New York City.
Many of your rights depend on the type of housing you live in or your type of tenancy. You may be subject to different laws and have different sets of rights than even neighbors in your own building. Learn which rights and responsibilities apply to you.